A more recent article highlighted conflicts between parents in an elite New Jersey school district debating the extent to which children should be "pushed" academically. While framed as a battle split along a cultural divide, the controversy centered on whether students' emotional welfare should take precedence over the need for more rigorous academic standards. First-generation parents in particular raised concerns regarding the need to prepare their children for success in a competitive society where favors or connections never existed for them.
As the parent of a gifted child, how do you know if you're being too pushy... or, on the other hand, if you're not doing enough? When is it necessary, or even essential, to offer incentives, apply pressure, or threaten consequences to enlist your child's motivation? How do you know if and when this does more harm than good? You don't want to be a "tiger parent," but sometimes you wonder if she was on to something after all.
Children learn from experience and build resilience when they feel challenged and have the freedom to fail and recover. And most research has supported authoritative parenting (where both limits and support are provided) rather than harsh authoritarian or overly permissive parenting styles as best for children's emotional security and confidence. Clearly, children thrive when parents strike a balance between these extremes by offering support, structure and guidance.
And offering encouragement, limit-setting and guidance is an essential part of parenting, particularly when your child is struggling. Almost all children fall behind at something, whether it's math, meeting deadlines, or just doing chores at home. When you create an expectation that your child should accomplish something she is clearly capable of achieving, you let her know you respect her abilities and potential. However, when the bar is set too high, or when failure is not an option, a child may feel pressured to perform beyond her abilities.
Nevertheless, many parents struggle with uncertainty regarding how much to "push their child. They juggle cultural, family and community influences, and their hopes and dreams for their child, with realistic concerns that too much pressure could backfire. Reports of suicide clusters at Bay Area high schools, for example, suggest a link between a culture of high expectations and overwhelming stress. Accounts of coercion and verbal abuse from parents of high profile celebrities, such as pianist, Lang Lang, may seem extreme. Yet, parents may question if they are doing enough. After all, Lang Lang is successful...
As you grapple with your role as a parent, you may want to consider the following questions:
1. How important is the immediate task?
If you push your child, he might accomplish the task at hand more efficiently and successfully. And if that particular task is important, then it may be necessary. For example, submitting a college scholarship application by the deadline may be more critical than completing a fifth grade book report. Your child's age, temperament, and emotional adjustment need to be considered along with the significance of the immediate goals. There are times when he may need your strong encouragement, and others when it may be best to step back and allow him to take the lead...even if he fails.
2. Does my involvement help or hinder progress?
Sometimes kids get stuck. They feel lost, insecure and anxious. They procrastinate, exaggerate the significance of their failings, or underestimate how much effort is necessary to succeed. Parents are there to guide them. You may need to intervene and provide some support, limit-setting, or goal-setting. You know your child best and can determine what type of involvement might work - gentle encouragement, humor, firm limits, etc. You also may sense when your involvement will backfire. A brief initial outburst where you child complains about your intervention can be expected. What is more of a concern is if your child starts to rely on you completely, rebels and refuses to comply, shows signs of anxiety or depression, or gives up entirely.
3. What are the long-term effects of my involvement?
As you sort through how much to intervene, keep in mind long-term goals. You might think that applying pressure and setting exceptionally high expectations "builds character" and instills habits that lead to further success. While some children may rise to this challenge, others may develop insecurity, risk-avoidance, perfectionism, too much reliance on you for guidance, or eventual rebellion. Winning that award in sixth grade or getting perfect grades may backfire later on when your child faces greater challenges and must accept her imperfections. Many gifted children who are underachievers feel pressured to succeed and give up completely when confronted with the reality of their perceived inadequacies.
Children sense when they are encouraged to reach their potential, or when the goal is beyond their grasp. Gifted children, with their perceptiveness and heightened sense of fairness and justice, become disillusioned if they sense they are serving the school's or their parents' personal goals, or fulfilling community expectations. If you hope to build independence, resilience and confidence in your child, remaining attuned to your child's needs and determining how much to "push" is essential.
What are your thoughts? How do you know if you are pressuring your child?