I think back to this experience as a reminder of how "free time" is often discouraged, even at such a young age. This is not to say that chaos should reign supreme at preschools and that teachers don't have their hands full. A level of order and cooperation is necessary, not just for keeping the classroom functional, but to help children develop important self-regulatory skills. But the expectation that a 2-year-old boy must sit through circle time rather than explore the joys of that enticing toy nearby seemed excessive.
It is hard to recall an era when children spent their free time exploring the outdoors and relying on their imagination, when scheduled activities, electronics, and structured learning didn't compete for their attention. Fort-building, tea parties and swashbuckling battles with sticks filled their time. But now, exploration is steeped with expectations that it will lead to further achievement and success. Even preschoolers have less free time, as they juggle pre-reading and pre-math with other formative "readiness" activities.
Yet, research is highlighting the importance of free time and unstructured play for all children, especially for preschool children. Why is free time so essential to a young child's development? Here are some recent findings:
1. Play "wires kids' brains for social and academic success." It contributes to changes in the prefontal cortex during childhood. These changes affect executive functioning and the ability to regulate emotions and solve problems. According to researcher Sergio Pellis, "plenty of so-called free play" is essential to this aspect of brain development.
2. Preschools may not be providing enough opportunity for physical activity, as seen in a recent study where children were most sedentary during teacher-led activities. "Based on their findings, the study authors recommend child-care centers allow for more child-initiated activities, either indoors or outdoors, along with an increase in outdoor time."
3. Studies cited by David Kohn demonstrate the problems associated with forcing young children to sit through academic instruction. In one study, children who had received teacher-led instruction during preschool performed worse academically when they reached fourth grade than those students who were allowed to engage in free play during preschool. Rather than helping, teacher-led instruction "may have the opposite effect, potentially slowing emotional and cognitive development, causing unnecessary stress, and perhaps even souring kids' desire to learn." A blog post by Gwen Dewar also sums up additional research related to free play and child development, and points to the importance of recess, unstructured play, and time outdoors.
4. The importance of play in early childhood programs is also highlighted by Polakow-Suransky and Nager. They point out the misguided rush to engage in academic instruction, and the importance of free time. They recommend that preschool teachers remain involved by encouraging creative exploration, and by asking questions to enhance the children's work and help develop new thinking skills.
"As they play, children develop vital cognitive, linguistic, social and emotional skills. They make discoveries, build knowledge, experiment with literacy and math and learn to self-regulate and interact with others in socially appropriate ways. Play is also fun and interesting, which makes school a place where children look forward to spending their time. It is so deeply formative for children that it must be at the core of our early childhood curriculum."While all children benefit from the "gift of free time," gifted children, in particular, thrive when they can freely engage in creative and unstructured activities. In a previous post, the importance of play was addressed, along with how it benefits gifted children. They hunger to learn, but forced instruction, especially at the preschool level, may be even less effective than for most children. Their advanced learning skills, heightened sensitivities, and often uneven social/emotional development may affect their adjustment to a traditional preschool setting. Boredom, impatience, distractibility, emotional reactivity and difficulty relating to peers are all warning signs of adjustment problems. Parents may need to advocate with their child's preschool, and additionally ensure that their child has plenty of opportunity for free-time, creative expression and exploration outside of school.
This blog is part of the Hoagies Gifted Education Page Blog Hop on Free Time. To read more blogs in the hop, click on the following link:
I could not agree more on all counts, Gail. Thanks so much for this!ReplyDelete
Cait, Thanks for your comments.Delete
Excellent post- very timely on so many points. Thank-you for all of the great links! SusanReplyDelete
Thanks so much for this. I regret how my son's preschool was so structured. I would have liked if he had more time to play and make is own choices. I don't get how these programs expect children to sit still so much. It's very stressful for them.ReplyDelete
Thanks, anonymous. It can be stressful for children when they are not permitted to have time to run around, plan their own activities and engage in free play. Many preschools feel pressured to offer educational instruction, but much of the research suggests that unless children come from impoverished homes, this level of instruction offers little advantage, and can actually interfere with their interest in learning. Thanks for sharing.Delete
Gail, Thanks for these resources and for this clear description of what young children need. It just amazes me how people believe that academics and sitting still at such an early age could be beneficial. Aak!!ReplyDelete
Paula, Thanks for your comments. I agree - hard to believe that so many think that trying to get these kids to sit still has much benefit other than to make them, and their teachers, miserable.Delete
My children have lots of free time, but they are usually indoors with their toys. I would love for them to have more outdoor time.ReplyDelete
While outdoor time is great, some children don't like it as much, and some environments (like being in a city) don't make it easy. But having lots of free time to explore indoors sounds great. Either way, having an opportunity to be creative and use their minds to explore is wonderful.
Gosh, how I wish free-exploration and play for younger children would become an educational trend in the very near future. It is just so necessary. In the ten years I taught Kindergarten, the quick change in focus from informal learning through play to structured instructional time was so disheartening. I would have never guessed I would be required to give spelling tests to 5 year olds!ReplyDelete
Thank you, Gail. I always appreciate your articles and all the excellent professional references you provide!
Thanks for your comments and kind words. I appreciate how hard it must have been to change your approach with young children in your class. Thanks again, and also for all of your wonderful, informative writing in your blog and book!Delete
Great thought! I will definitely keep this close at hand so I can refer to it often and keep myself on track.ReplyDelete
thankyou so much for excellent article.
Great post! Free time is important for children to develop their mind so as to explore, build knowledge and learn to interact with others. It makes them more imaginative and creative. My 3 year old attends a preschool in Williamsburg and the teachers there know the importance of free time for kids.ReplyDelete